CHANGES IN DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION OF THE ISLAND KRK IN THE PERIOD 1857-2011

Marta Jovanić, Ivo Turk

Abstract


Population of an area is a function of a set of different natural-geographic and socio-economic factors in the past and the presence, which is why each area has its own uniqueness in demographic development. Population development of the islands is the most conditioned by the distance from the mainland and by method of transport connection. Nowadays the Island of Krk is connected with the hinterland by a bridge and air connections and to other islands with ferry lines. Aim of this work is to research and to explain the dynamics of certain demographic components of the island of Krk and to display them using GIS applications. In this work are observed the changes of population of the Island of Krk from 1857 until 2011 (the period between the first and the latest Croatian modern census of population). In this work changes in characteristics of population of the island Krk are noted, based on 16 census, how many of them were conducted in this period, as well as on natural demographic trends, migrations and general population trend. They are the result of interactions between a number of socio-economic and socio-geographic processes. Changes of number of inhabitants, changes in the size of settlements as well as movements of the mean center of population and the ellipse of population are observed in the period 1857 – 2011. Vital statistics (natural demographic trends) are presented since the year 1964, since when in Croatia it has been systematically led on the settlement level. The comparison of certain demographic indicators of coastal settlements and settlements in the interior of the island has been observed for the period 1971 - 2011. Migration trends on the island are explained from the mid 19th century, while the more detailed is analyzed migration of population for the year 2001, because newer data (census of population 2011) was not available in the time of writing this work.

The analysis have shown that the decreasing number of inhabitants of the island from the early 20th century is in correlation with the processes of urbanization of the town Rijeka, while the increasing of the number of inhabitants on the island from the seventies of the 20th century onwards is related with the process of suburbanization of the town, which was significantly influenced by the construction of the Krk bridge. From the seventies of the 20th century until today, the west and north sides of the island have recorded more positive demographic indicators than the east and southeast sides. This can be explained by better conditions for the development of tourism on the west side of the island, and with the development of industry and the closeness to the town Rijeka. Therefore, since the mid 19th century until today is occuring a moving of the mean centre of population in the northwest, and in accordance with that is the ellipse of the population in year 2011 is laid northern than in the year 1857. The coastal settlements have more positive demographic indicators than settlements in the interior of the island. In the period 1971 - 2011 the number of population of the island of Krk is increasing. Natural depopulation is compensated by immigration, which has greatly stimulated by the development of tourism and suburbanization of Rijeka. The interior of the island remains unattractive for immigration and, considering the present demographic trends, this area will probably be further depopulated.


Keywords


population; mean center of population; Island of Krk; demographic dynamic; ellipse of population; littoralisation; GIS analysis

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